Abstract: The objective of the present study is to investigate the frequency of pleomorphic cytological atypias in the exfoliated cytosmears of human buccal mucosa neoplasms (HBMN), pattern of cervical lymph node (CLN) metastasis and to establish its role as a diagnostic criterion for early detection of oral cancer.
In a hospital-based case-control study, a total of 126 subjects (63 HBMN cases and 63 healthy individuals) were included. Two scalpel-scraped exfoliated cytosmears were collected from the affected site of the buccal mucosa and were fixed in aceto-alcohol (1:3) immediately. Cytosmears were stained with Papanicolaou’s stain and Giemsa’s stain. Cat Cam 1.30 (1.3 Mega Pixel) microscope camera was used for phptomicrography. Software package Palaeontological Statistics (PAST) ®, Version 2.17 was used for statistical analysis.
Cytological pleomorphism was well observed exhibiting a number atypias in the exfoliated cytosmears of HBMN. The frequencies of typically atypical cells like KSC, KTC, KSC-A, KFC, KRC, PKSC, MNC and NMSCs are observed to be directly correlated with the degree of pathogenicity at different stages of oral carcinogenesis. Diagnostically, the Sensitivity was calculated to be 93.1 % and Specificity was 100 %, Positive Predictive Value (PPV) was 100 %, Negative Predictive Value (NPV) was 55.6 % and the accuracy was 93.7 %.
Presence of any such cytological atypias in the exfoliated cytosmears of HBMN indicates the state of malignancy and thus, the finding is practically helpful in determining the stage of the HBMN. However, the role of tobacco and alcohol in connection to unusual CLN metastasis with particular reference to the HBMN needs further research.
Abstract: COVID-19 Vaccine acceptance among the general public and healthcare workers appears to play a key role in the successful control of the pandemic. It is critical to understand and investigate how much hesitancy toward COVID-19 vaccines might occur and factors responsible for these public concerns as this will greatly assist public health workers in their efforts to maximize vaccine uptake and thus, control the pandemic. This study investigated factors responsible for covid 19 vaccine hesitancy among health care workers in ATBUTH Bauchi. A cross-sectional study was carried out using questionnaires administered to health care workers of ATBUTH. A total of 339 were administered. Random sampling was employed in the selection of participants. Simple Percentages and Means were used to analyze the data. It was observed that out of the 339 administered questionnaires, 321 were returned. 70 % of respondents were aged 30-40 years, 20 % 20-30 years and 10 % 40-50 years respectively. 198 (62 %) health care workers were vaccinated, out of which 43 % were fully vaccinated, 57 % had received at least 1 dose. The most common reason for vaccination was travel restriction (74 %). Most common reason for not being vaccinated was fear of side effects (68 %). Highest qualification of respondents that were vaccinated was masters (5 %).